Blood Bank Department, Motol University Hospital
About Blood and Transfusion
Blood transfusion therapy involves treatment of some in-patients and it is also a part of out-patients´ therapy. In many cases the transfusion saves the most precious thing for the patients – their lives.
Where Transfusion Helps
Administering blood products transfusion is necessary for the patients inflicted with serious injuries, severe burns, during many surgical procedures (orthopaedic, cardiology, after transplantations etc.), in the process of malignant disease therapy, treatment of some types of anaemia, within neonatal replacement transfusion, exceptionally also during intrauterine transfusion of foetus, treatment of blood coagulation dysfunction, of haemodialysis etc.
About the Blood Type System
The most significant discovery of blood groups enabling safe blood transfusion was made by Viennese scientist Landsteiner in 1901. He had discovered three blood groups – A, B, and 0. Few years later Dr. Jan Jansky, Czech psychiatrist had discovered the fourth blood group – AB. Blood type system of four blood groups A, B, 0 and AB was not introduced until the thirties of the last century. This blood group system should be taken in consideration during blood transfusion. The most frequent blood types in the Czech Republic are A (42%), 0 (39%), B (15%) and AB (4%).
Another very important blood group system is an Rh system discovered by Landsteiner in 1941. This system is rather complicated and the most significant factor in it is the D antigen responsible for whether we are “Rh positive” or “Rh negative (D antigen is missing). Most of the population is Rh positive (85%).
Universal Blood Type
Blood type 0 Rh negative is so called “universal blood type group”. A donor with such blood group is a universal donor of transfusion products concerning red blood cells. On the other hand, people with AB blood type are universal recipients.
Transfusion Products and How They Are Made
Transfusion products are made from human blood. Only healthy donors can give blood in the transfusion centres. Transfusion components are made from whole human blood which is drawn classically. Blood transfusion products divide into erythrocyte components (containing red blood cells), frozen plasma and platelet components (containing thrombocytes). Blood components can also be prepared using a separating device when a donor provides only one blood component (blood platelets, red blood cells or plasma). Most frequent blood draws performed by separating device include a transfusion of platelet products.
Rules of Safe Transfusion
The aim of safe transfusion is to maximise the results of the treatment with minimum side effects endangering the recipient. The missing blood component of transfusion patient/recipient shall be replaced by the transfusion product with the least volume of other blood components.
History of Our Department
During the 50´s and 60´s of the last century the examination before transfusion as well as transfusion products for Motol patients were provided by blood bank placed in old buildings, first in “H” pavilion, later in “B” pavilion. The blood bank was a part of medical ward led at that time by Prof. MUDr. Jonáš and later led by senior consultant MUDr Beran.
Establishment of the Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion
In 1970 after the baby ward was opened and afterwards in 1971 the haematology laboratory of Motol hospital, blood bank and haematology laboratories of 1st and 2nd Children´s Hospital were united. This led to the establishment of the new Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion. Until 1990 senior consultant MUDr. J. Sieglová was the head of this department. Since then the department has been headed by senior consultant MUDr K. Petrtýlová.
Placement of the Department
Within the plan of Prague health service a project had been prepared in the 80´s to construct a separate transfusion centre with blood draw section, production and laboratory sections. This project was not implemented. After the new hospital section for the adults was opened, the growing number of laboratory examinations caused that in 1997 the blood bank had to be moved to current premises. New facilities are provided with new and modern storage equipment of transfusion products, laboratory apparatus and information system for laboratory operating, record of transfusion products and autologous blood collections.
Establishment of the Department of Blood Bank
The Department of Blood Bank was established in 2000 by separating from the Department of Haematology.
The Department of Blood Bank of Motol University Hospital is a part of common examination and treatment sectors. It is responsible for providing transfusion service within Motol University Hospital and ensures service for in-patients and outpatient centres and departments.
Inspection of Correct Practice
Every two years the Department of Blood Bank successfully undergoes the inspections of the State Institute for Drug Control in Prague (SÚKL) to obtain permission for blood collections, processing blood draws to autologous whole blood and laboratory inspection in accordance with the Law No. 378/2007 Coll. In January 2009 Motol University Hospital got SAK CZ accreditation certificate.
Annually the Department of Blood Bank successfully takes part in the system of external quality inspection of laboratory immunohaematological examination. The department then obtains certificates for the basic and specialised immunohaematological examinations.
Education of Laboratory Technicians
In April 2006 the Department of Blood Bank obtained accreditation of MZČR (in compliance with the Law 95/2004 Coll.) within the field of specialty education in Haematology and Transfusion Medicine for doctors and in March 2008 accreditation for medical laboratory technicians´ specialty educational program (according the Law 96/2004 Coll.).